Insight: Journal Takes New Name To Reflect Its Mission Regarding Blindness

With its mission of providing insight into issues surrounding blindness, the journal of the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired (AER) will now express that vision in its name. Insight: Research and Practice in Visual Impairment and Blindness has been the journal’s new title as of January 1, 2011.

“Insight immediately conveys the journal’s content,” said Dr. Deborah Gold, editor-in-chief. “This new name will allow our publication to reach beyond the ‘inner circle’ of AER members and create a wider audience that perceives the value of this journal.” She noted that many people outside the organization are not familiar with the acronym AER.

The journal offers research, best practices, and discussions of controversial issues to professionals who provide education and rehabilitation services to people with visual impairments. “Our goal is to grow the journal by attracting authors and content from a broader range of sources,” Gold said.

Formerly titled AER Journal: Research and Practice in Visual Impairment and Blindness, the publication will premiere with its new title, “Insight,” on the cover with the February 2011 issue. Indexes will reflect the full name of the journal.

“With the help of our publisher, Allen Press, we have made great progress in having the journal appear in important publications indexes,” Gold said. “With the new name, we can enhance that process and increase citation frequency. This will benefit our ratings when we apply for an impact factor with Thomson Reuters.”

Allen Press Publishing Services

Cerimon Pharmaceuticals Initiates Phase II Study To Evaluate Simulect(R) (Basiliximab) For Noninfectious Uveitis

Cerimon Pharmaceuticals,
Inc., announced it has initiated a Phase II proof-of-concept study of
Simulect(R) (basiliximab) for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis, a
chronic and potentially sight-threatening inflammation of the eye. The
randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study will evaluate the
safety and efficacy of Simulect as maintenance therapy in 56 patients.
During the study, patients will undergo tapering of concomitant
immunosuppressive medications, the mainstay of treatments for noninfectious
uveitis. This is the second mid-stage trial for basiliximab run by Cerimon,
which began a Phase IIb study for patients with moderate-to-severe,
steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) in April 2007.

“The initiation of this proof-of-concept study is part of our overall
strategy to seek additional indications for already marketed drugs in areas
with significant unmet medical needs,” stated Paul Sekhri, President and
CEO of Cerimon Pharmaceuticals. “In noninfectious uveitis, we believe
Simulect has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for
patients by reducing adverse events often associated with oral or topical
corticosteroids while maintaining effective control of their inflammation.”

Basiliximab is a monoclonal antibody that selectively blocks the
interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor. This mechanism of action provides highly
targeted inhibition of the T-lymphocyte activation that is involved in
serious immune-related diseases including noninfectious uveitis. In
February 2006, the Company licensed basiliximab from Novartis Pharma AG for
the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and initiated a Phase IIb
clinical study for the treatment of moderate-to-severe, steroid-refractory
ulcerative colitis the following year. In December 2007, Cerimon entered
into an agreement with Novartis to conduct a proof-of-concept study for
basiliximab for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis.

About Noninfectious Uveitis

Uveitis is an inflammation of the internal structures of the eye.
Uveitis can be described by the underlying condition that causes it:
autoimmune (noninfectious), bacterial, viral, parasitic and eye trauma, and
by the part of the eye that it affects: anterior, intermediate, posterior
and panuveitis. Noninfectious uveitis affects approximately two hundred
forty thousand people worldwide and can lead to complications, such as
glaucoma, cataract and total vision loss. Current treatments include
topical and oral corticosteroids, steroidal implants and immunosuppressive
drugs; however, these generally have limited success and can lead to
adverse events.

About Cerimon Pharmaceuticals

Cerimon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., is a biopharmaceutical company dedicated
to developing and commercializing therapeutic products for autoimmune
diseases, inflammation and pain. Cerimon believes these new treatment
options will enable physicians to further improve the lives of their

Cerimon currently has two drugs in clinical development. The Company’s
autoimmune program has two development programs. The lead program is a
Phase IIb study in which Simulect(R) (basiliximab) is being assessed as a
treatment for moderate-to-severe, steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis
(UC). The second program is studying Simulect as a treatment for
noninfectious uveitis in a Phase II study. Cerimon’s lead asset in its pain
portfolio is the Company’s topical formulations of diclofenac. The Company
is in mid-stage clinical testing with its topical diclofenac products.

The Company continues to seek additional assets to add to its
development pipeline and is financed by the premier investors MPM, Nomura
Phase4 Ventures and OrbiMed Advisors.

For more information on Cerimon, please visit the Company’s website at

Cerimon Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

View drug information on Simulect.

Patent Awarded To LSUHSC For Compound Inhibiting Cancer And Other Diseases

Dr. Eugene Woltering, the James D. Rives Professor of Surgery and Neurosciences at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans School of Medicine, and Dr. Conrad Hornick, former LSUHSC Professor of Physiology, have been awarded a US Patent for a compound to inhibit the formation of blood vessels critical to the growth of cancerous tumors and diseases like diabetic retinopathy, obesity, and psoriasis.

Apolipoprotein A-I is the major protein component of lipoproteins – water soluble carrier molecules that transport cholesterol through the blood. LSUHSC researchers discovered that it can be used to destroy existing blood vessels as well as prevent the development of new vessels. For a tumor to grow bigger than 2 mm, the diameter of a large grain of sand, it must a have blood supply. Application of Apoliporpotein A-1 and high density lipoprotein has been proven effective in inhibiting tumor growth dependent upon angiogenesis – the process of developing new blood vessels. Studies have demonstrated that the level of vascularization in a tumor is strongly associated with metastasis in melanoma, breast, and lung carcinomas.

“This patent was based on the observation that lipid droplets are critical to the formation of the lumen of the blood vessels. By removing these fat droplets from the developing blood vessel we feel that we will be able to control the growth of new blood vessels that would feed tumors,” notes Dr. Woltering.

There is also evidence that Apolipoprotein A-1 will be effective in treating other diseases reliant upon angiogenesis. In those diseases, angiogenesis is the root cause of tissue injury, including blindness associated with proliferative retinopathies, skin disorders such as psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Diseases that have been associated with abnormal blood vessel formation include Crohn’s disease, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, obesity, corneal neovascularization, benign tumors, hemangioma, arterial/venous malformations, sickle cell anemia, sarcoidosis, syphilis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Pagets disease, vein occlusion in the eye, infections of the retina, hyperparathyroidism, carotid obstructive disease, chronic uveitis/vitritis, mycobacterial infections, Lyme disease, systemic lupus erythematosis, psoriasis, myopia, optic pits, Stargarts disease, chronic retinal detachment, hyperviscosity syndrome, toxoplasmosis, trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, and post-laser complications.

LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans educates Louisiana’s health care professionals. The state’s academic health leader, LSUHSC comprises a School of Medicine, the state’s only School of Dentistry, Louisiana’s only public School of Public Health, and Schools of Allied Health Professions, Nursing, and Graduate Studies. LSUHSC faculty take care of patients in public and private hospitals and clinics throughout Louisiana. In the vanguard of biosciences research in a number of areas worldwide, LSUHSC faculty have made lifesaving discoveries and continue to work to prevent, better treat, or cure disease.

Source: Leslie Capo

Louisiana State University Health Science Center

Looking Vs. Seeing

The superior colliculus has long been thought of as a rapid orienting center of the brain that allows the eyes and head to turn swiftly either toward or away from the sights and sounds in our environment. Now a team of scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies has shown that the superior colliculus does more than send out motor control commands to eye and neck muscles.

Two complementary studies, both led by Richard Krauzlis, Ph.D., an associate professor in the Systems Neurobiology Laboratory at the Salk Institute, have revealed that the superior colliculus performs supervisory functions in addition to the motor control it has long been known for. The results are published in the Aug. 6 and Sept. 17 issues of the Journal of Neuroscience.

“Beyond its classic role in motor control, the primate superior colliculus signals to other brain areas the location of behaviorally relevant visual objects by providing a ‘neural pointer’ to these objects,” says Krauzlis.

The superior colliculus is currently under renewed scrutiny because recent findings have suggested that it does more than help orient the head and eyes toward something seen or heard. Results hinted that the superior colliculus might play a role in analyzing the current environment and deciding whether one specific aspect is worth paying closer attention to than another. Definitive proof, however, has been lacking.

The Salk scientists adopted a more “naturalistic” approach in their experiments to understand this role of the superior colliculus. Historically, physiological studies of eye movement control have relied on individual spots of light representing visual targets, but the real world is much more complex than a single dot on a computer screen. “For example, we can smoothly track a large airplane, with all its intricate visual details, by directing our gaze at its center,” explains Ziad Hafed, Ph.D., Sloan-Swartz Fellow in the Systems Neurobiology Laboratory and lead author on both studies. “At night, we might only be able to see the strobe lights on the wing tips, but we are still able to track the object’s invisible center.”

Hafed designed a series of experiments where the subjects had to infer the invisible center of a visual target consisting of two peripheral features – much like the above airplane’s strobe lights in the night sky – and track it for several seconds ( or fixate on a stationary dot while the peripheral features were moving back and forth ( (The green crosshair indicates the subject’s eye position.)

For one study, the Salk researchers recorded the activity of single neurons in the superior colliculus while the subjects either fixated on the stationary dot or tracked the invisible center of the moving object. “The SC contains a topographic map of the visual space around us just as conventional maps mirror geographical areas,” explains Hafed. “This allowed us to record either from peripheral neurons, representing one of the ‘wing tips,’ or central neurons, representing the foveal location of the invisible center that was tracked,” he adds. (The fovea, which is responsible for sharp, central vision, is located in the center of the macular region of the retina, while peripheral vision occurs outside the center of our gaze.)

Surprisingly, the central neurons were the most active during this tracking behavior, despite the lack of a visual stimulus in the center of gaze. “These neurons highlighted the behavioral importance of the location of the invisible center, because it is this location that was the most important for the subjects to successfully track the object,” says Krauzlis ( When the subjects ignored the invisible center, the same neurons were significantly less active (

As part of the second study, the Salk researchers, in collaboration with Laurent Goffart, Ph.D., a professor at the Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la M?©diterran?©e in Marseille, France, temporarily inactivated a subset of superior colliculus neurons and analyzed the resulting changes in tracking performance. While the subjects still tracked well, their gaze consistently and predictably shifted away from the center, demonstrating clearly that the superior colliculus is essential for defining the object location (

“By showing that the SC is not just a motor map, but also a map of behaviorally relevant object locations, our results provide a conceptual framework for understanding the role of the SC in non-motor functions such as visual attention and the functional links between motor control and sensory processing,” says Hafed.

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, is an independent nonprofit organization dedicated to fundamental discoveries in the life sciences, the improvement of human health and the training of future generations of researchers. Jonas Salk, M.D., whose polio vaccine all but eradicated the crippling disease poliomyelitis in 1955, opened the Institute in 1965 with a gift of land from the City of San Diego and the financial support of the March of Dimes.

Source: Gina Kirchweger

Salk Institute

Patents Issued For Inotek Pharmaceuticals’ Lead Clinical Compounds In Glaucoma And Contrast-Induced Nephropathy

Inotek Pharmaceuticals Corporation announced today that the United States Patent and Trademark Office has issued two new patents covering the Company’s two lead clinical compounds. US Patent number 7,423,144 relates to INO-8875, in clinical development as a novel treatment for glaucoma and US Patent number 7,432,369 relates to INO-4885, in clinical development for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

“These patents cover important technology discovered and developed by Inotek scientists and serve as an initial foundation for our growing pipeline in ophthalmology and other select indications with significant unmet medical need,” said Paul G. Howes, President & Chief Executive Officer of Inotek.

INO-8875 is a selective adenosine 1 agonist in Phase 1 clinical development as a topical agent for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure associated with primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Adenosine 1 receptors have been shown to play a role in reducing intraocular pressure by increasing the outflow of ocular fluid via the trabecular meshwork pathway.

INO-4885 is a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst in Phase 1 clinical development for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing procedures involving contrast imaging agents who are at high risk of kidney damage. This indication represents a large market with high unmet needs for which there are currently no approved therapies.

About Inotek Pharmaceuticals

Inotek is a clinical-stage, drug-development company located in Massachusetts with two clinical-stage programs being developed for glaucoma and contrast-induced nephropathy. The Company also has preclinical programs for various other ophthalmology indications which target mechanisms believed to play a role in ocular disease progression. Inotek also has preclinical programs targeting PARP and flagellin with applications in cancer and inflammatory bowel disease.

Inotek Pharmaceuticals

UV Light-Enhanced Tooth Bleaching Is Not Only A Con, But Is Dangerous To Your Eyes And Skin

UV light-enhanced tooth bleaching is not only a con, but is dangerous to your eyes and skin, says a Royal Society of Chemistry journal.

The light treatment gives absolutely no benefit over bleaching without UV, and damages skin and eyes up to four times as much as sunbathing, reports a study in Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences.

Those looking to match Tom Cruise’s glittering pearly-whites would be better off ignoring claims of better bleaching with UV light treatment.

The treatment is at least as damaging to skin and eyes as sunbathing in Hyde Park for a midsummer’s afternoon – one lamp actually gave four times that level of radiation exposure.

And as with sunbathing, fair-skinned or light-sensitive people are at even greater risk, said lead author Ellen Bruzell of the Nordic Institute of Dental Materials.

Bruzell also found that bleaching damaged teeth. She saw more exposed grooves on the enamel surface of bleached teeth than on unbleached teeth. These grooves make the teeth more vulnerable to mechanical stress.

Tooth bleaching is one of the most popular cosmetic dental treatments available. It uses a bleaching agent – usually hydrogen peroxide -to remove stains such as those from red wine, tea and coffee, and smoking.

UV light is claimed to further activate the oxidation process, improving bleaching efficiency. The authors of this Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences article say there is very little substantive evidence to support this claim, and their new study finds no benefit to using UV light.

Source: Ellen Bruzell

Royal Society of Chemistry

Promedior Announces Presentation Of Data At ARVO Demonstrating That PRM-151 (rhPTX-2) Suppresses Choroidal And Retinal Neovascularization

Promedior, Inc., a clinical stage biotechnology company developing novel therapies to treat fibrotic, inflammatory and neovascular diseases, today announced that data from preclinical studies of PRM-151 (recombinant human Pentraxin-2 (PTX-2)) will be presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), being held May 1-5, 2011 in Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

The data to be presented highlight the efficacy and utility of Pentraxin-2 in suppressing choroidal and retinal neovascularization in independent models of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy.

Pentraxin-2 is a natural human protein that regulates the cell populations that control fibrosis, inflammation and pathologic neovascularization. In AMD and diabetic retinopathy, neovascularization is known to cause retinal damage which can result in visual impairment and progressive loss of vision.

The schedule and details of the poster presentation for PRM-151, recombinant human Pentraxin-2 (PTX-2), at ARVO is as follows:

Abstract Title: PRM-151, recombinant human Pentraxin-2 (PTX-2), Suppresses

Choroidal (CNV) and Retinal Neovascularization (RNV)

Session Title: AMD Preclinical and Translational Studies

Session Number: 412

Session Start: Wednesday, May 4, 2011, 8:30 AM -10:15 AM

Location: Hall B/C

Organizing Section: Retina+

Program #/Board #: 4000-4024/A138-A162

About PRM-151

PRM-151, Promedior’s lead product, is a recombinant form of a naturally circulating human protein, Pentraxin-2 (PTX-2), that regulates a fundamental mechanism of the innate immune system response to injury and activates the body’s natural ability to resolve tissue damage in disease processes that cause fibrosis and inflammation. PRM-151 has shown broad anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory activity in multiple preclinical models of fibrotic disease and inflammation, including pulmonary fibrosis, acute and chronic nephropathy, and glaucoma.

PRM-151 is currently being tested in a Phase 1b clinical study in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) to evaluate the safety, tolerability and dose-responsive changes in validated cellular and soluble biomarkers of disease activity. PRM-151 is also being tested in a Phase 2a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PRM-151 in preventing post-surgical scarring in glaucoma patients following glaucoma filtration surgery. Promedior successfully completed a Phase 1 clinical study of PRM-151 in 2010.


Pentraxin Therapeutics


Gene Therapy Restores Sight To Children With Congenital Blindness

Results from a breakthrough study, conducted by researchers at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, show that gene therapy has restored significant vision in five children and seven adults who were previously blind. The Foundation Fighting Blindness funded the clinical trial and has been the long standing funding source of the research that made the trial possible. The study used gene therapy to treat participants with Leber’s congenital amaurosis, a severe form of retinitis pigmentosa that causes blindness or substantial vision loss at birth. Trial participants demonstrated improvements in visual acuity, peripheral vision and light sensitivity. The greatest improvements occurred in four children ages 8-11, all of whom are now able to navigate an obstacle course in dim lighting. These findings have been reported in an online article in The Lancet, one of the world’s leading medical journals.

“These results are outstanding. We are delighted by not only the restoration of vision and the vision improvement that has been sustained, but also that the treatment has demonstrated an outstanding safety profile,” says Stephen Rose, Ph.D., chief research officer, Foundation Fighting Blindness.

The Foundation Fighting Blindness, the world’s largest source of non-government funding for retinal degenerative disease research in the world, has significantly funded the research for the CHOP clinical trial from its conception to this latest breakthrough. Dr. Rose expresses his confidence about the clinical trial’s results, adding, “the success of this groundbreaking effort is paving the way to use gene therapy to treat a wide range of retinal degenerative diseases.” The Foundation will continue to support the clinical trial and related research.

The Lancet

Prenatal exposure to alcohol may cause visual problems in infants, study

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a disorder that is indicated by distinct facial characteristics, growth retardation, and poor intellectual and attentional function, can occur when mothers drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy. A new study in the October issue of The Journal of Pediatrics shows that prenatal alcohol exposure can also affect an infant’s visual acuity or sharpness of vision.

Sandra W. Jacobson, Ph.D. and colleagues from Wayne State University and University of Cape Town evaluated 131 infants of mixed ancestry in Cape Town, South Africa. After interviewing each mother to ascertain her alcohol consumption during pregnancy, the authors tested the visual acuity of the infants at 6 1/2 months of age using the Teller Acuity Cards (TAC) Test, which is comprised of gray cards with a concentration of vertical black and white stripes on the left or the right side. An examiner looked through a peephole in the center of the card to determine where the infant was looking. Poor visual acuity was indicated when the infant was not looking at the side containing the lines.

Of the infants examined, 22 met the criteria for being diagnosed with FAS, and their visual acuity was significantly poorer than those without FAS. 27% of the infants with FAS scored below the fifth percentile, as opposed to the 9% of the infants without FAS. However, half of the infants with low TAC scores who did not meet the criteria for full FAS were born to mothers who reported binge drinking (greater than 5 drinks per occasion) during pregnancy.

The authors also found that the infants born to mothers ages 30 and older who drank during pregnancy were at greater risk for poor visual acuity, although the older mothers did not drink larger quantities of alcohol. The authors speculate that this could be attributed to the age-related physiological changes in older mothers or to chronic drinking over a longer period of time.

The authors point out that in-depth, ophthalmologic evaluations of the study infants throughout childhood are necessary to determine the extent of visual abnormalities due to prenatal alcohol exposure.

The study is reported in “Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on infant visual acuity” by R. Colin Carter, MD, Sandra W. Jacobson, PhD, Christopher D. Molteno, MD, Lisa M. Chiodo, PhD, Denis Viljoen, MD, Joseph L. Jacobson, PhD. The article appears in The Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 147, Number 4 (October 2005), published by Elsevier.

Terri Stridsberg
The Journal of Pediatrics
Elsevier Health Sciences

JustAnswer And Glaucoma Research Foundation Help Individuals See The Light In Preventing Blindness

JustAnswer®, the website where people go when they need answers from Doctors, Lawyers, Mechanics or other Experts, today announced it is partnering with the Glaucoma Research Foundation (GRF), as part of Vision Research Month. The collaboration is to help the non-profit educate, identify and treat individuals with glaucoma. This disease, diagnosed in 2.4 million people per year worldwide, leads to blindness if untreated.

The “Ask an Eye Doctor” section of GRF’s website features a question box linking inquirers directly to JustAnswer’s Eye Experts, thereby providing visitors instant and affordable access to some of the country’s leading ophthalmologists and Eye Experts. With this Web destination, JustAnswer and GRF are empowering people all over the world with knowledge by connecting them with Expert insight into symptoms, treatments, risk factors, costs and other general issues related to glaucoma any time of the day and typically within minutes.

The following GRF affiliated ophthalmologists and Eye Experts on JustAnswer will be available the week of June 22 to answer questions regarding glaucoma and various eye conditions:

– Dr. Daniel Jewelewicz, Columbia University-trained glaucoma specialist who was named a South Florida “Super Doctor” by the New York Times (Monday-Friday, 12:30-1:30 p.m. ET);

– Dr. Andrew Rabinowitz, author of several published glaucoma research works and recipient of the prestigious Pharmacia Top Doc Award in 2001 (Monday-Thursday, 3:00-4:00 p.m. ET); and

– Dr. Bradley Schuster, University of Colorado assistant clinical professor and glaucomatologist at Kaiser Permanente in Denver (Monday, Wednesday and Thursday, 7:00-8:00 p.m. ET, and Friday, 3:00-4:00 p.m. ET).

Beginning at $14 per question, inquiring minds will get answers to online queries related to the disease typically within minutes during the kickoff week and beyond. During the time periods mentioned above and from each question the three doctors answer, proceeds will go to GRF, which has funded $45 million worth of projects linked to the end-goal of finding a cure over the past three decades.

“We are always striving to offer every resource imaginable in fighting glaucoma,” said GRF President and CEO Thomas Brunner. “JustAnswer provides an interactive component to our site that is unprecedented in the glaucoma research community and a powerful complement to what is already the most comprehensive destination for information, education and support concerning the disease.”

Because the disease progresses slowly and with virtually no warning symptoms, glaucoma is particularly difficult to identify. The only way to determine if a person has glaucoma is through a comprehensive eye examination. Thus, awareness is critical. Although there is no cure, blindness can be prevented with early detection and treatment.

“We have a great respect and deep admiration for GRF’s efforts to inform the public of the specifics of glaucoma,” said JustAnswer CEO Andy Kurtzig. “We are proud to help GRF provide around-the-clock assistance to people everywhere looking for answers from Eye Experts in identifying and managing this disease.”

Similar to an on-call 24/7 service, JustAnswer provides individuals with quick, immediate, cost-effective online access to verified Medical Experts for answers to vital questions – no health insurance required.

Eye Experts on JustAnswer are available anytime via the Medical category, one of the company’s hundred categories.

About the Glaucoma Research Foundation

The Glaucoma Research Foundation is the nation’s largest non-governmental funding agency dedicated solely to glaucoma research and education having raised over $45 million to support this mission. In addition to funding projects such as the Catalyst For a Cure Research Consortium and the Shaffer Grants for Innovative Glaucoma Research, GRF is also the “go to” source for education materials such as ‘Understanding and Living with Glaucoma’ a resource for patients newly diagnosed with the disease. The Foundation’s Newsletter, Gleams, reaches over 100,000 glaucoma patients, physicians, scientists and educators throughout the United States. Website: www.glacuoma.

About JustAnswer

JustAnswer® serves as an online platform where more than 19 million registered users receive answers from 20 thousand doctors, lawyers and other people that JustAnswer collectively calls Experts. Millions with questions come to the site for affordable and timely insight in more than 100 categories, ranging from Medical to Legal. The JustAnswer network enables registered Experts to provide answers within minutes, to help ensure customer satisfaction. JustAnswer is ranked as a top 200 website by the leading global Internet ratings service, Quantcast. For more information about the company, please visit the JustAnswer website or view real-time questions online now.

Designated trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners and do not imply any affiliation or endorsement of JustAnswer. JustAnswer uses the term Expert to refer to the people answering questions.

Glaucoma Research Foundation